Advanced Carbonate Technologies (ACT) is presently unaware of any supplemental fertilizer that has its own range and balance of micronutrients. While there are large suppliers of chemical and natural fertilizers in North America, farmers are often not inclined or educated to look outside the traditional NPK-potash paradigm. However, with the growing awareness of NPK damage to micro-organisms in the soil and the dramatic increase in fertilizer prices worldwide. Wide-spectrum, micro-nutrient, mineral-rich products that overcome the diminishing returns of NPK in over-farmed soils are not widely available in a balanced time-released manner. To fully engage the potential of ActProMin, education and support for the green revolution will greatly aid in allowing farmers to understand the optimum balance between chemical fertilizers and natural wide-spectrum mineral supplements.
ActProMin is a complex variety of bio-minerals. Bio-minerals are a subset of the mineral kingdom, those created by living creatures. In spite of usually fine grain size and intimate association with organic materials, bio-minerals are readily identified as common mineral species. Iron hydroxides and oxyhydroxides, calcium carbonates and calcium phosphates from uni- and multi-cellular species are presented as examples of bio-minerals and the bio-mineralization processes. Their special morphological and crystal-chemical characteristics provide unique structural contributions to the life forms that create them. Investigations of novel habitats should present opportunities to expand the number of bio-minerals and their potential for industrial applications.
Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) has the highest solubility within the all calcium carbonate polymorphs. In biological systems, ACC functions mainly as a precursor for other carbonate phases, as temporary calcium ion storage in plants (cystoliths) and as a stiffener for the exoskeleton of crustaceans (crabs, lobsters, etc.).
The vast deposits of calcium carbonate laid down by marine organisms are the largest terrestrial reservoir of carbon and hold a historical record of the interplay between earth systems and biological organisms stretching back to the Cambrian period. Moreover, the richness of calcium carbonate architectures suggests that the mineral can serve as an excellent model for determining the physical mechanisms that underlie bio-mineralization.