Frequently Asked Questions
ACTpromin is the product line of our all-natural, mineral-rich deposit or secondary fertilizer soil amendments available for agriculture, landscaping, gardening, houseplant care, and hydroponics. Our products ACTpromin products come in different grain sizes to allow for faster or slower time release of 72 certified organic plant nutrients. ACTpromin stands for Activated Calcium Technologies Product Mineral. It is extremely rare for farmers to be offered a natural organic calcium oxide rich fertilizer and soil enhancer in one product. ACTpromin’s 72 biofriendly essential trace elements boost plant growth, health, sustainable farming, and much more.
ACTpromin products are sourced from fossilized gastropods and algae that existed over 6 million years ago in an ancient freshwater lake out in Northern Nevada. The gastropod fossil deposit is 31% rich in calcium oxide embedded 72 trace elements that remineralize depleted soils so that plants can grow strong with increased production.
The unusual and unique formation of the ACTpromin calcium oxide deposits metamorphosed 1.2 million years ago when local sustained volcanic activity and geothermal activity heated the fossilized bed of mineral-rich limestone to temperatures in excess of 825 degrees Celsius.
Its earlier formation as a freshwater limestone deposit happened 5-6 million years earlier when the Sierra Nevada Mountains rose to a height to intercept moisture, that formed the rainclouds which made the massive inland lake. It occurred during what geologists refer to as the late Miocene Pliocene epoch.
Many geologists and agricultural soil analysts express surprise at the rarity of a limestone deposit that metamorphosed into 31% calcium oxide that acts as such an efficient delivery system to the 72 essential colloidal trace elements. The ionic calcium oxide makes the minerals immediately available to soil bacteria and plant roots in a bioavailable manner. In the Agworld we have been told many times by amazed farmers that its one of the fertilizer wonders of the world.
ACTpromin is unique in that freshwater gastropods and algae can only form in the purest of circumstances and the limestone has virtually no sodium element to be concerned with, which is a common problem with seawater based limestone’s. Freshwater fossiliferous limestones are comparatively very rare and usually quite different from very common saltwater-formed limestones. We don’t know of any other deposit in the world that is a freshwater fossiliferous limestone that has been heated by volcanic proximity to over 825 degrees. So far in our extensive research, we believe we have a “one of a kind mineral-rich calcium oxide-based limestone deposit”. Virtually all organic natural limestones are Calcium Carbonate based while ours is distinctly different with 31% of catalytic Calcium Oxide. The ability for the ionic calcium oxide in ACTpromin’s products to separate itself from the oxygen, allows the calcium and attached trace elements to be readily available for plant uptake.
There is an overwhelming amount of calcium deposit products out there, so how do you choose? The answer is simply the biochemistry quality over quantity. For example, you could buy the very common Calcium Carbonate Limestone for less than ACTpromin, but it takes a substantial amount more than ACTpromin’s to get the much less benefit, and it does not provide for the gentle time-release trace element delivery system of calcium oxide that ACTpromin offers. With a slower time-release of nutrients, the roots can capture the trace elements without them descending out of reach. Also with the excessive practice of acidifying soils with NPK, most industrially farmed soils are greatly depleted of essential trace elements not replaced by ordinary ocean-based limestones. ACTpromin is very different. Using ACTpromin greatly lessens the need to use NPK by significant amounts. Resulting in lower average fertilizer costs and a slower, more efficient release of nutrients.
ACTpromin products are easily applied to the tops of soil and can also be blended with other soil amendments and fertilizers. Learn more about applying ACTpromin products by downloading the ACT Mineral Report and Usage Guidelines.
Though ACTpromin is environmentally benign when applying the ultra-fine ACTpromin rock dust or powder avoid shaking the duster too rigorously as to avoid creating plumes of smoke. The small particles, if regularly inhaled, as with any rock dust can be dangerous to your lungs. You can minimize risk by simply applying the product slowly and away from your face or by wearing an appropriate mask.
ACTpromin products are acceptable for use on all fruits, vegetables, grains, and inedible plants. All soils that offer plants calcium, magnesium, iron, and all the 72 trace elements will grow larger, stronger, and be more likely to be disease-free.
The certified organic (OMRI) fossilized life formed sediment is not toxic and can feasibly be consumed by animals and humans. We have not focused on certification in order to sell food-grade products at this time and have instead focused on the much larger soil regeneration industry.
There is nothing toxic about our product (it’s only rock dust!) but there is a minimal risk using the ultra-fine ACTpromin rock dust in large amounts without face protection. This is because the particles are ground into a powder that allows the plants to take up the nutrients quickly. Because the dust is so fine, it can be dangerous if you breathe in too much of it. Just be careful when applying a lot of ACTpromin rock dust at once, and wear a facemask if you’re regularly applying a lot at once.
No, we do not sell ACTpromin products for human consumption. However, the ACTpromin products are non-toxic to humans and animals and have been used as rock licks with cattle. However again we have not focused on getting certification at this stage in order to sell to this market. However, the continual use of macro-nutrients (NPK) on soil without replenishing the micronutrients (trace elements) depletes the soil and produces inferior food products. This is such an important issue that health experts recommend taking trace minerals every day because most foods no longer have essential trace minerals in them which in turn can lower immunity and attract many diseases which can be traced to poor mineral intake.
No. ACTpromin products are not sourced from volcanic material. Most volcanic ash products can have excessive arsenic or heavy metal elements and ACTpromin is exclusively composed of decomposing freshwater algae, plants, fossilized gastropods, and bivalve mollusks and mineral deposits located in the ancient freshwater lakebed in Nevada.
Yes. Like all limestones, ACTpromin products are gentle on plant root hair requirements and help alkalize acidic or over-fertilized soils to a more essential neutral pH. The significant advantage ACTpromin has over most limestone-based products is that it is a high ionic compound (CaO). Ionic bonds are not as strong as Calcium’s covalent bonds and hence the trace element electrons are more rapidly available as micronutrients than they would be in a calcium carbonate limestone.
You can find the full mineral report by downloading the ACT Mineral Report and Usage Guidelines
ACTpromin has considerably less heavy metal content than a typical soil sample anywhere else. ACTpromin products are sourced directly from the fossilized life forms of an ancient freshwater lakebed, where hydroponic plants and gastropods thrived because of the purest of circumstances.
ACTpromin products are also OMRI (Organic Materials Review Institute) certified organic and have not been chemically altered in any way.
Absolutely not. The reason we bring this up is that there were a few recent articles that came out exposing the toxic reality of bio feed. According to these sources, bio feed contains human waste. ACTpromin products are pure rock dust or gravel mined from depth. We do not need to add anything to it.
Store all ACTpromin products in a dry place with the container sealed. It’s important to keep moisture out of the product. Being dry and water-soluble it absorbs atmospheric moisture and readily reacts with hairy plant roots in combination with its ionic trace element combinations due to the calcium oxide content.
Click to download PDF: Safety Data Sheet (SDS)
ACTpromin is gentle on plant root hair requirements and helps alkalize acidic over-fertilized soils to a more essential neutral Ph.
ACTpromin has an essential slow-release wide spectrum of essential minerals and elements. Does not overwhelm the chemistry of the soil and kill soil bacteria as many fertilizers do. Instead, it rebuilds and strengthens the essential bacteria, fungi protozoa, and anthropoid colonies so essential for the saprophytic relationship of nutritional root transfer. Depleted soils and sterile soils are a major problem for farmers forcing them to use even more inorganic soil killing fertilizers.
When soil bacteria have full-spectrum essential elements delivered in a non-overwhelming chemical manner they are more tolerant to excessive NPK fertilization and are not killed so easily.
Strengthens the plant and soil bacteria’s allowing the plant to require up to 25% less water for survival. Allowing the crop to sustain drought or heat wave conditions that would otherwise kill them.
ACTpromin Can be applied at the same time as other applications or during planting or cropping processes. UNI-MIN can be entered into the irrigation system for slow release mineral supplementation. UNI-MIN has an extensive shelf life and does not break down in dry conditions.
ACTpromin is Bio Friendly and nonhazardous and helps to greatly improve livestock and plant growth. Increased germination rates, improved yield, more flowers, disease and pest resistance along with better tasting vegetables are all the result of mineral diverse soils that have not been depleted at the root level.
Extensive research has shown many different types of applications for different crops, soil types, and climate conditions with spectacular economic benefits. A 3/16ths of an inch grain size applied at a rate of 500 pounds (1/4 of a ton) to the acre sustains soil requirements under heavy cropping for five years. Worldwide Because of overpopulation and extreme economic demands farming practices have stopped the tradition of allowing their fields to go fallow, allowing the soil to rebuild itself. As a consequence due to trace element depletion, soil conditioning through bacteria and protozoan colonization is greatly diminished requiring even greater demands for fertilizer. ACTpromin greatly supplements this depletion of soil conditioning and helps prevent the soil from becoming sterile.
ACTpromin does not cake the soil, is odorless, will not burn plants, and will not restrict aeration or water penetration.
ACTpromin provides an essential slow-release wide spectrum of essential an element that does not overwhelm the chemistry of the soil and kill soil bacteria as many fertilizers do. Instead, it rebuilds and strengthens the essential bacteria, fungi protozoa, and anthropoid colonies so essential for the saprophytic relationship to nutritional root transfer. Depleted soils and sterile soils are a major problem for farmers forcing them to use even more inorganic soil killing fertilizers.
When the farmer does not rotate and replenish organic matter in his soil he has to at least replace the complex spectrum of trace elements to support the essential organisms such as earthworms, nematodes, protozoa, fungi, bacteria, and different arthropods. These essential organisms play an essential role in the Nitrification, Nitrogen fixation, Denitrification, and actinobacteria soil regeneration processes. It takes thousands of years to make new soil through weathering. Industrial farming is not a balanced way to maintain soil optimization UNI_MIN helps overcome the depletion of trace elements lost through intensive cropping.
ACTpromin helps combat the negative impact of Acid Rain, Acid rain gives water a pH of 5.6, Fossil fuels add to acid rain but need only 25ibs of limestone per year to neutralize one acre per year. Acidity is produced by nitrogen applications. To combat the effects on the soil of the industrial revolution we need to speed up our integration into the green revolution to survive the pressure of the growing world population. By lessening soil acidity it increases soil microbe activity, nutrient exchanges, nutrient availability, gaseous exchanges, and chemical degradation.
ACTpromin gives the soil the ability to improve its rate of exchanging cations. – Ions are atoms with an electrical charge common Cations are Ca2+ Mg2+, Na+, and K+ Anions are SO2- PO3-, CL-NO3 Most soils are negatively charged and hold cations. Cations held on exchange sites may move into soil solution and be taken up by roots. Anions are not held in soil and are subject to leaching (P is an exception) Cations and Anions exchange (colloids) and work best in a wide spectrum trace element filled soil.
ACTpromin helps balance out the four major problems if soils are poisoned by too much fertilizer, excess chemicals, and acidity or if irrigation contains salt (salination) Some soil amendments can even add to supersaturation or waterlogging such as gypsum in clay soils because ACTpromin is partly a dissolving calcium oxide and calcium carbonate with many mineral oxides it does not aid in the waterlogging of clay soils.
Burned lime is another name for Calcium Oxide. It is also known as unslaked lime or quicklime. It is well known for giving quick results in alkalizing soils while giving a calcium supplement. However, it does not usually include a rich variety of other mineral oxides otherwise found when crops are burnt.
ACTpromin can be applied directly or in combination with compost, humus, manures, or other fertilizers and beneficial soil microbials as well as being used in compost tea productions.
For lawn care on existing lawns, a 44-pound bag will cover a 15 to 25,000 square feet lawn application will only be required once every five years and does not need to be tilled into the soil with newly seeded lawns.
Soils with lower clay content often suffer excessive leaching of water-soluble minerals allowing supplements and fertilizers to damage river and lake systems. Even lime can be oversupplied and hence it is safer to use a slow-release alkaline amendment like to feed the roots system in a slow avalanche manner. With ACTpromin lower clay content soils however should need less watering for vigorous plant growth. Many nutrients are lost to leaching as they go to the lower horizons in soil tables beyond the reach of crop root systems. Slow time-release nutrient delivery is the most efficient method as the roots can only transport nutrients when they are in their reach. Billions of dollars of fertilizers worldwide are wasted as they leach below the root line of food crops. This is also seriously polluting the water table.
High percentages of soil supplements and fertilizers that are not time-released can be lost in the first storm through the preferential flow. Implications for soil fertility are obvious. These supplements are polluting and expensively ineffective with slow controlled time-release ACTpromin preferential flow does not affect its effectiveness unless the soil erosion is serious also.
ACTpromin slow-release action removes the need for the farmer to constantly top-dress his crops in a seasonal manner. The application can be often only need to be done every few years depending on the selected grain size. This helps them manage the fields in an inexpensive manner greatly reducing labor costs.
ACTpromin does not need to be plowed in to be beneficial by keeping the soil in place helps lessen contain erosion.
ACTpromin counteracts soil depletion of minerals through Monoculture. Repeated similar crops on the same land delete specific sets of trace elements needed for plant growth.
ACTpromin helps combat overgrazing as many cattle are simply starved of nutrients and cannot eat enough to be satisfied. Well-fortified feed supplies their needs and boosts their immunity. ACTpromin can also be made into a mineral lick.
ACTpromin is especially beneficial to perennial crops that grow for several seasons. Can be cast over bushes and trees without leaf burn and will be bio soluble with first rainfall or watering.
ACTpromin when used in aquaculture for mineral supplementation and as a water treatment tool will stimulate plankton growth.
ACTpromin as a feed grit in particle sizes of less than half a millimeter to powder size can be used as a feed additive and anti-caking agent. Most minerals are best used for fish or livestock via plant sources however using less than 0.2% of feed ration has shown health improvements. However, at this time we have not applied for a feed certificate.
ACTpromin is loved by Chemo heterotrotrophs. All chemo heterotrophs (meaning they oxidize chemical compounds as a source of energy and carbon), as are fungi, protozoa, and some bacteria. Are extremely valuable to soil biology for optimum plant immunity and growth. They thrive on well-balanced complex chemistry of minerals and trace elements. Because a lot of the trace elements are already oxidized their growth and contribution become much more rapid. This is the opposite of what most standard fertilizers do: EG most crops strip out nutrients due to an excessive growth demand via the use of NPK. Hence rebalancing the soil and feeding the chemo heterotrophs can in part reverse the damage NPK does.
We are presently unaware of any supplemental fertilizer that has its own range and balance of micronutrients. While there are large suppliers of chemical and natural fertilizers in North America. Farmers are often not inclined or educated to look outside the traditional NPK- potash paradigm. However with the growing awareness of NPK damage to microorganisms in the soil and the dramatic increase in fertilizer prices worldwide. Wide spectrum micronutrient mineral-rich products that overcome the diminishing returns of NPK in over-farmed soils are not widely available in a balanced time-released manner. To fully engage the potential of ACTpromin, education, and support for the green revolution will greatly aid in allowing farmers to understand the optimum balance between chemical fertilizers and natural wide spectrum mineral supplements. We have listed some excellent websites with other soil friendly products on our links page.
NUMEROUS PDF PRESENTATIONS ON SOIL ENHANCEMENTS FROM http://remineralize.org
This video shows how bacteria can create croplands where before there was no chance of growing plants.
We have the ability to cater to our customer requirements. Our large export requirements have been wishing to obtain ¾ inch ACTpromin gravel to save on shipping costs. For the USA customers generally, the smaller grain size is more popular. Each grain size usually caters to a different time-release requirement. Below are some of the different sizes of ACTpromin products.
ACTpromin is all-natural, mineral-rich rock dust derived from fossilized gastropods. ACTpromin is ground to ⅜ inch gravel and is ideal for large scale agriculture farming. ACTpromin is optimized for slow-release absorption so nutrients are readily available to plants. Farmers love ACTpromin because it’s easy to use and can be blended with fertilizers and soil amendments. You will notice the difference in the health, flavor, color, size, and shelf life of your fruits and vegetables. Total Nitrogen <.1% Available Phosphate <.11% Total Potash <.11% Soluble Potash <.16% Calcium 34% Magnesium 1.6% Iron .21% Sodium .19% as well as much smaller proportions of 63 other essential trace elements. ACTpromin ⅛ “ is an all-natural, mineral-rich rock dust soil amendment ground to <⅛ in. ACTpromin fortifies gardens, landscapes, and lawns with essential nutrients derived from freshwater fossilized gastropods. Landscapers and gardeners will love the easy application as the product can be blended with fertilizers and amendments. You will notice the difference in the health, flavor, color, shelf life, and size of your fruits and vegetables. Total Nitrogen <.1% Available Phosphate <.11% Total Potash <.11% Soluble Potash <.16% Calcium 34% Magnesium 1.6% Iron .21% Sodium .19% as well as much smaller proportions of 63 other essential trace elements. ACTpromin Powder is an ultra-fine, all-natural rock powder that provides readily available nutrients to plant roots for a jolt of nourishment. ACTpromin Powder is ideal for houseplants and hydroponics, as the mineral-rich dust is easily taken up by the plants to strengthen them inside and out. ACTpromin Powder is a 200 mesh fine powder, which means that there are 200 holes in a mesh screen over an inch wide. Total Nitrogen <.1% Available Phosphate <.11% Total Potash <.11% Soluble Potash <.16% Calcium 34% Magnesium 1.6% Iron .21% Sodium .19% as well as much smaller proportions of 63 other essential trace elements.
Virtually all limestones are just calcium carbonates.
And almost all of the commercially minable deposits are saltwater based.
When Limestone (known chemically as calcium carbonate) is heated strongly in the absence of air, the calcium carbonate it contains absorbs heat (endothermic ) and decomposes to form calcium oxide (CaO). Because of the very close prolonged volcanic proximity to our rare freshwater underground deposit, it decomposed into 31% to 34% calcium oxide with carbon dioxide about 1.2million years ago. The CO2 has since escaped eons ago.
When ACTpromin is applied to crops the gentle balance of calcium oxide has an affinity with water and in combination with the other mineral oxides, becomes organic multi-mineral-rich calcium hydroxide. Most quicklime can be dangerous in that this reactive process can create extreme heat.
ACTpromin has enough other minerals and calcium carbonate (34%) to effect a much more gentle bio-friendly non-heating reaction.
Before the second world war, it was well known that the careful introduction of calcium oxide brought record yields of healthy plants. Which was why our product was popular before farmers became excited about the soil damaging introduction to NPK.
Calcium carbonate compounds are generally insoluble, which are unusable by plants without special help from microbes. Microbes are single-cell organisms such as bacteria, protozoa, fungi, and various nematodes and grubs. All of these organisms need calcium too, but they have the ability to use calcium in solid form. The waste they excrete contains the calcium compound that plants can absorb.
However, the calcium oxide and other oxides in ACTpromin is readily available for crop nutrition. If rapid results are required calcium oxide is much superior to calcium carbonate.
Let’s focus on four calcium compounds and how they affect plants: calcium oxide, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, and calcium nitrate.
In addition to providing the necessary calcium to the soil, calcium compounds are added to soil to lower the acidity of the soil. The measure of acidity is pH, which stands for ”potential hydrogen”. Acids contain free hydrogen ions. The pH range for optimum plant health depends on the species of plant so it is important to monitor and regulate it.
Soil becomes acidic naturally. Rainwater is slightly acidic, and it can wash away ions in the soil such as the alkali metals including potassium and sodium, and alkaline earth metals such as calcium and magnesium. Gases from the decomposition of organic material react with water in the soil generating acids such as carbonic acid, sulfuric acid, and nitric acid.
To make the soil less acidic quickly, calcium oxide (CaO), also known as quicklime, can be added. Calcium oxide reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide, which is a base. A base is the opposite of an acid, which is why the pH of the soil is raised to more neutral levels when a base reacts with an acid. However, just adding straight calcium oxide in its many forms has a monotonous disadvantage. As the soil and plant requirements are much more complex.
This is why we get spectacular results with ACTpromin.
CaO (s) + H2 O (l) → Ca(OH)2 (aq)
(s) means solid
(l) means liquid
(aq) means aqueous (dissolved in water)
Calcium carbonate, (CaCO3) can also be added to the soil to raise the pH.
CaCO3 + H2 O (l) → Ca+2 (aq) + OH-1 (aq) + CO2 (g)
But as discussed before the process of getting the calcium to the plant takes a lot longer and is more dependent on the soil bacteria etc.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a net electrical charge.
The ionic formula for calcium oxide is simply CaO when already mixed as a bio-friendly colloidal organic mineral complex into the soil it stimulates the soil fauna and roots nutritional and metabolic requirements by its balancing and electrolytic effect.
The Calcium ion is an Alkaline earth metal and wants to give up the 2 s orbital electrons and become a +2 cation. Oxygen has six valence electrons and is looking to gain two electrons to complete the octet (8) electron count in the valence shell making it a -2 anion. This process also increases soil permeability, which is why we have discovered farmers use much less water to irrigate. So it is important for the farmer to understand he can use diluted calcium oxide products that are blended atomically with calcium carbonate into our bio-friendly colloidal organic mineral complex. Both these freshwater forms of calcium are blended at the atomic level not offered before and consequently offer both a rapid gentle nutritional delivery system and a slow time-release progression.
This is true. We have googled “Does calcium oxide occur in nature?”
And the answer was:
“Calcium oxide. … Lime does not occur naturally since it reacts so readily with water (to form hydrated lime) and carbon dioxide (to form limestone). It is produced in very large quantities synthetically, however, by the heating of limestone.”
Hence all the Ag colleges seem to say the same thing and we have been ridiculed by many experts for claiming our many legally binding lab analysis reports were cooked.
The world even calls calcium oxide by the common name of Quicklime or burnt lime.
Wikipedia says, “Quicklime specifically applies to the single chemical compound calcium oxide”.
So are we smoking something?
When one is called delusional, one tends to dig a lot deeper.
Our research discovered another respected and valuable rock that has large amounts of natural calcium oxide in it.
The United States Geological Survey website states.
Wollastonite, a calcium metasilicate (CaSiO3), has a theoretical composition of 48.3% calcium oxide and 51.7% silicon dioxide but may contain trace to minor amounts of aluminum, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, and sodium…..Deposits of wollastonite have been found in Arizona, California, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, and Utah.
Because of its high silicate nature, this material is not suitable for consumption or as a fertilizer. However, the existence of this material proves the many experts who have not believed our legally binding lab analysis reports, to be flat wrong.
We have a precious limestone material that is both unique in our experience and deeply stimulating to the growth of plants. Due to its mix of organic 34% calcium oxide, calcium carbonate, and an extensive list of bio-friendly trace elements.
We also can not stress enough that no pollution occurs in the extreme heating of our limestone to create calcium oxide as this occurred underground eons ago and did not require the burning coal, gas, or oil.
Geology of U.S. Wollastonite Deposits
Wollastonite is formed by two processes. The first occurs when silica and limestone are raised to a temperature of 400°–450°C, either because of deep burial (regional metamorphism) or by being baked because of their proximity to an igneous intrusion (skarn deposits), forming wollastonite and giving off carbon dioxide: SiO2 + CaCO3 = CaSiO3 + CO2 Silica + limestone = wollastonite + carbon dioxide The second way wollastonite forms is by direct crystallization from molten rock (magma) that is unusually high in carbon content.
And the many geologists we have spoken too who have investigated wollastonite believe ACTpromin was created in a similar process but without the extensive silica being present.
We thought our lab reports would prove Calcium Oxide does occur naturally. And hence we are very thankful to have found evidence of other large commercially mined calcium oxide deposits, as this popular erroneous concept has been a major stumbling block preventing further investigation from disbelieving farmers and soil experts when we have explained the unusual spectacular growing results we have observed.
Global warming caused by the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is a major issue both environmentally and economically. Carbon dioxide, the most important among GHGs, reached an average concentration of more than 0.04%, increasing the global temperature of ca. 1 °C above the pre-industrial level. In order to prevent an increase of more than 2 °C in the next decades as stated by the Paris Agreement, a large implementation of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) or Utilization (CCU) as well as low-carbon emission technologies is needed.
The cement that is mostly made from baked limestone is the source of about 8% of the world’s carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, according to think tank Chatham House.
If the cement industry were a country, it would be the third-largest emitter in the world – behind China and the US. It contributes more CO2 than aviation fuel (2.5%) and is not far behind the global agriculture business (12%).
Cement contains 67% of Lime or calcium oxide. And is often spread as 100% as a soil alkalizer or fertilizer.
Today’s horizontal rotating kilns that are several meters in diameter and up to 100 meters in length, operating at a temperature of about 1100-1200°C, allowing rapid conversion of limestone into lime. They use fossil fuels and create pollution on a massive scale. Our ACTpromin had its calcium oxide content made by heat treatment over 1.2 million years ago.
Geologists assume that this first occurred when the limestone temperatures were raised to a temperature of 400°–450°C, either because of deep burial (regional metamorphism) or by being baked for many years because of their proximity to an igneous intrusion (skarn deposits), forming 34% partial calcium Oxide (lime) and giving off carbon dioxide: The second possible way our limestone formed such a high concentration of lime or calcium oxide is by direct crystallization from volcanic molten rock (magma) that is evidenced in the local area.
CaCO3(s) limestone → CaO(s) lime + CO2(g) carbon dioxide
The main source of air toxic emissions from a lime plant is the kiln. Emissions originate from the burning of fuels and the heating of feed material. Air toxics are also emitted in trace quantities from the grinding, cooling, and other materials processing steps in the manufacturing process! The primary air toxins present in the lime creating exhaust gases are dangerous metals such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and nickel; and hydrogen chloride. The health effects associated with exposure to these air toxics include cancer, respiratory irritation, and damage to the nervous system.
ACTpromin does not generate and introduce any of these gases into the atmosphere. And unlike lime, is also a mineral-rich rebuilder to the soil.
Lime (Calcium Oxide)is essential for many important uses it is just important to understand that it comes with a very high environmental cost in comparison to the natural organic colloidal ACTpromin. The calcium oxide of Lime also does not replace the over-fertilized depleted minerals in the soil in comparison to ACTpromin.
An 18 month research report published by the University of Nevada Agricultural Department from their Greenhouse Experiment Station. has shown the spectacular results of ACTPROMIN and its ability to enhance soil fertility.
On page three the conclusion of this report stated:
"In support of our hypothesis , this study shows that calcium oxide is extremely effective in promoting soil fertility, nutrient availability, and plant growth. It proves how the application of CaO in the soil leads to immediate increase in soil pH, decreases in iron content, and immediate increase in phosphorus content that is otherwise limited in acid soil high in iron content. Calcium oxide can be more effective when used with fertilizer to release or make available limited nutrients like nitrate. The lack of change or increase in Zu, Cu and Mn could be attributed to the increase in soil pH from acid to neutral and mainly alkaline soil. Calcium oxide was effective in promoting plant growth when used alone or with fertilizer. This study is on-going to assess the long-term effects of calcium oxide on soil chemistry, nutrient availability, and plants growth in acid and alkaline soil."
It is relevant to add that this ongoing extensive research to educate the world about this unique organic natural calcium oxide by the University of Nevada is not paid for by us. But is being pursued independently by the agriculture department due to the past exciting results and the consequent recognition for the need of non chemical fertilizers.
The Actpromin research report summary can be reviewed here.